Wednesday, 2 December 2015
Causes of Breast Cancer
Breast is an appendage of the skin as the oil Sam strain. Saemin lactating mammary gland (mammary gland) and related to transport milk to the nipple (the nipple), and consists of fat tissue. Are wired between the second ribs (ribs) and sixth ribs, left to right, it is distributed among the outfits bone (sternum, Sternum) and axillary centerline. The main function of the breast is a breast-feeding after birth, provides essential nutrition for the baby's growth.
Define the type of breast cancerBreast cancer is a malignant tumor that spreads outside the breast can be life-threatening. Depending on the occurrence sites related with lobular (小葉) the same substance (實質) cancer and other epilepsy occurring in the organization (間 質) divided by cancer of the tissue, cancer of relevant and Leaflets are again depending on how cancer cells spread to the surrounding tissues divided into invasive breast cancer and non-invasive breast cancer. Breast cancer in men is less than 1% of female breast cancer, invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common finding.Risk factors and prevention of breast cancerRisk FactorsBreast cancer risk factors in the first obesity, alcohol consumption, exposure to radiation, cancer family history and the like, not related to the hormonal early menarche, late menopause, long-term hormone replacement therapy after menopause, do not breast-feed, and the like first birth age is late You can.preventiveCancer is not a simple and reliable way to prevent or avoid breast cancer because it is caused by a complex interaction of several factors. However, while smoking and sobriety and maintain proper nutrition and proper exercise, if possible, a first birth before the age of 30 and maintain a long lactation period. But it is not yet effective and immediate way to confirm. If the higher the probability of breast cancer by genetic factors, you might want to consider taking an anti-hormonal preparations in consultation with experts.Early screeningsNational cancer screening programs and a monthly breast self-examination and more than 40 million women aged 1-2 year intervals to receive mammography and clinical examination of the doctor recommends.Diagnosis of Breast CancerGeneral symptomsInitially, most do not have any symptoms, breast pain is not a symptom of early breast cancer in general (in fact, most breast pain is not related to breast cancer). The most common instruments which are parties to doubt if a lump is cancer (eg lumps) in the breast being touched. That can only come out bloody discharge from the nipple, if breast cancer progression is accentuated with thick skin like orange peel.Diagnostic methodsLesions of breast self-examination and clinical examination, radiography (mammography, breast ultrasound), a biopsy (biopsy) diagnosed as such. Jindago by touching a lump in the breast is not the case of all fibrocystic breast disease, benign fibroadenoma of something more common. If the diagnosis of breast cancer preoperative MR in order to assess the state imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), scanning a bone (Bone Scan), positron emission tomography (PET) to conduct inspection and, if necessary.Treatment of Breast CancerTreatmentSpindle of breast cancer treatment is surgery and drug therapy, radiation therapy. It is very early excluding breast cancer and has conducted anti-hormone therapy or chemotherapy, or both after surgery, one patient's age and menopause seem to be, tumor size, metastasis extent to axillary lymph nodes, the patient's health and throughout the state, including consideration of doctor information.• If surgery is possible (induction chemotherapy →) → Surgery → chemotherapy, radiation therapy or anti-hormone therapy, if required, if necessaryIf the induction chemotherapy was conducted to the first surgery left reduces the size if the tumor is larger or breast cancer evaluation with advanced breast cancer as an initial step, to implement the concept of induction chemotherapy in the systemic treatment prior to surgery .If you need chemotherapy after surgery it is usually performed to the first chemotherapy than radiation therapy.Radiation therapy is performed in order to suppress the recurrence for the remaining breast tissue if you are breast conservative surgery underwent partial resection of the entire breast without moderation. Some of removing all of the breast in patients may require radiation therapy.Anti-hormonal treatment is performed if the diagnosis of breast cancer biopsy results in response to female hormones, and use a minimum of five years. In addition, for patients with receptor it is the development of targeted therapies, such as biopsy results heotu receptor (Her2 receptor) to conduct targeted therapy after surgery.If the operation can not be in metastasis to other organs, the anti-cancer chemotherapeutic and anti-hormone therapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy or the like can be preferentially considered, the treatment plan is determined by the condition of the patient.Side effects of treatmentThe long-term side effects that can come after the surgery is lymphedema (浮腫). The most common side effects of chemotherapy is hair loss, nausea (nausea), vomiting, generalized weakness, leukopenia (easy to bacterial infection), thrombocytopenia (blood easily cometh not stop well), such as a premature menopause. Anti-hormone drug tamoxifen has side effects such as hot flashes, irregular menstruation, query secretions, rarely fluid retention (body fluid pockets), depression, skin rash, etc. it will also appear.Recurrence and metastasisThe area has a lot to bone metastasis of breast cancer to be followed by the lungs, the liver, the order of the central nervous system